Despite taking a great deal of care and regular maintenance and sharpening, carbon steel knives are still the No. 1 choice of professional chefs. The razor-sharp edge of a carbon steel knife can’t be beaten while also being one of the easiest to sharpen when it does dull.
A patina protects your blade from corrosion but can go through stages of blotching and patches of discoloration as it forms. Over years of use, a patina will form naturally. However, those who live near the ocean may find it hard to prevent rust. It can also be the case with for your sharp and thick camping knife during rainy days.
If you want to guarantee that your knife it protected while giving your blade an attractive patina, read on.
We’ll be walking you through how to put a patina on a carbon steel knife quickly, with minimal fuss and effort.
What Is a Patina?
There are two ways that a carbon steel knife can oxidize. Both reactions occur when the carbon steel comes in contact with moisture and oxygen. The presence of salt speeds up oxidization significantly. Either rust can form from aggressive oxidization or magnetite.
Magnetite is the compound which forms when mild oxidation occurs. When carbon steel knives begin to turn a charcoal grey, they are forming a patina. The patina, formed as a layer of magnetite, protects your blade against corrosion and gives it that classic carbon-steel look.
Instead of allowing the aging process to form the patina over time, you can instead force a patina to develop. Here are a few ways to force an even patina using mild acids to spur oxidization.
Apple Cider Vinegar
Get a glass which is tall enough to submerge your blade up to its handle. Fill it with apple cider vinegar and submerge the blade. The pH level of apple cider vinegar is perfect for causing the mild oxidization needed for an even patina to form. Avoid soaking your blade in regular vinegar as its high level of acidity ends up giving it a matte finish which is off-putting for food preparation.
Leave your carbon steel knife soaking in the apple cider vinegar for four to five minutes. If you pay close attention to the area immediately beside the blade you will notice tiny bubbles. When no more bubbles are being released, your patina has formed.
Once it’s reached the distinctive dark grey shade you’re looking for, take your knife out, clean it thoroughly, and give it a polish.
Wiping on a Patina
When using this method, you need to be extremely careful. Heat up 3-4 cups of vinegar in a pot atop a stove. Bring the vinegar to a simmer and let it reduce to half its volume. Soak quite a few paper towels in this mix briefly. Using either gloves or tongs, use the towels to wipe the blade to a deep grey color. As soon as you reach the shade of grey desired, rinse the carbon steel knife off in cold water and give it a light scrub with a baking soda and water paste. This will neutralize any acid that may be left on the blade.
The baking soda also helps to buff the surface down giving it a sheer feel and appearance. To finish things off, oil your blade with olive oil and then heat it slightly. With olive oil rubbed well rubbed in, hold the blade a few inches above a stovetop and let it warm a bit. It needs to get too hot to touch but not hot enough to damage or warp the blade. A minute above a stove-plate on high should do the trick.
An All-Natural Patina
Cutting mildly acidic produce such as potatoes, onions, garlic, and tomatoes will all gradually cause a natural patina to form. There is no replacement for this slow process but if you treat your blade after use and pay extreme attention to how clear it is before starting, and how long you treat it for, a patina can be forced which comes close.
Force the Perfect Patina
Many kitchen and knife enthusiasts prefer treating their blade with mineral oil over olive oil. It is fairly cheap but most people will need to specifically go and buy it. Knife owners have experimented with many different types of acid due to the countless ways in which they interact with carbon steel. A time-old trick is to add 1/3 of a cup of cola to your vinegar mix before wiping your blade. Try this at your own risk!
Before forcing a patina onto your knife, make sure that you clean and dry the blade extremely well. Any residual dirt, oils or moisture will make the patina form unevenly. Regardless of which acid or method you use, wash your knife with warm soapy water. Rinse it and towel dry it. While it may seem extreme, wipe down your blade with rubbing alcohol before wiping on a patina or treating it in any way. Residual oils can ruin a patina making it almost impossible to recover without damaging the blade.
All these can also be done to keep your outdoor cutting tools sharp and rust free.